Verb Present Form

How to Form S-form of Verbs

The present form (S–form) of all verbs, including that of irregular verbs is directly derived from the base form of verbs. This is true of all verbs, with the sole exception of the verb be.

The prime difference between the present and base formOpens in new window is that the third-person singular present form adds –s or –es to the base form of the verb; all other present forms take identical pattern with the base form.

The base form of be is different from all of its present tense forms. Observe the chat below:

Number1st Person2nd Person3rd Person
SingularI amyou arehe/she/it is
Pluralwe areyou arethey are

The third-person singular present endings are fairly predictable both in pronunciation and in spelling.

If the base form ends in a sibilant sound (s, z, x, sh, ch, tch, or j [as in judge]), the ending is pronounced as a separate syllable and rhymes with buzz.

The ending is spelled -es, unless the base form already ends in -e, in which case only -s is added:

Base Form3rd Person
Singular Present

Note that if the base form ends in a silent consonant sound other than a sibilant, the ending is pronounced /s/ and is spelled -es.

The voiceless consonants are usually spelled with a p, t, ck, k, f, or gh (when pronounced /f/):

Base Form3rd Person
Singular Present
keep keeps
beat beats
seek seeks
take takes

In a situation where the base form ends in a pronounced consonant other than a sibilant or in a pronounced vowel (as opposed to a silent final -e), the ending is pronounced /z/ and is spelled -s :

Base Form3rd Person Singular Present
Note that if the base form ends in -y without a preceding vowel, the -y alters to -ie before the -s ending (as in fly above).

A few verbs have peculiar third-person singular present forms:

be is
have has

Two verbs, particularly “do,” and “say”, have irregular pronunciations in the third-person singular present form:

do does (rhymes with buzz)
say says (rhymes with fez)