Meaning of Participle, Uses and Examples
A participle (also called verbal adjective) is that form of the verb which takes the nature of both a verb and an adjective. Thus, a participle performs the functions both of the verb and the adjective.
Kinds of Participles
A participle indicates an action in progress or an action that is completed. Thus participles are of three kinds:1. Present participle
- Verb + ing, e.g. running, dancing, playing, singing, etc.
- Third form of the verb usually ending in –ed, –d, –t, –en, –n, e.g., tired, learned, burnt, broken, hurt etc.
- having + past participle, e.g. having completed, having seen etc.
Forms of Participles
Participles have the following forms:
|Active voice||Passive voice|
|Present form||loving||being loved|
|Perfect form||having loved||having been loved|
Uses of the Participle
Since the participle performs the same functions as the adjective, it can be used in three ways like the adjective.
1. Attributive useFor Example:
- He jumped off a running bus.
- The wounded child was carried to the hospital.
2. Predicative useFor Example:
- He seems much tired.
- I had to keep searching.
3. Absolute use (with a noun or pronoun going before)For Example:
- The sun having set, we shall go home.
Note that under the absolute use, the part containing the participle is quite independent of the main part.
How Participles Can Be Used
In English language participles are used with auxiliary verbs Opens in new window to make verb tenses such as the present continuous and the past perfect:Exaples include:
- We are relocating to Memphis. [present continuous]
- The Johnson’s have relocated to Memphis. [past perfect]
Past participles Opens in new window can be used in accompaniment with the auxiliary verb, to be, to form the passive voice of verbs:Exaples include:
- Andy was asked to see the principal.
- We were informed about the incident.
Participles can be used as adjectives:Exaples include:
- The pavement was covered with broken glass.
- He stared at me with bulging eyes.
Participles can be used as nouns:Exaples include:
- She was a woman of good breeding.
- Andy spent all day fishing.
When a present participle is used as a noun, as in the last set of examples, it’s also known as GerundOpens in new window:Exaples include:
- Smoking is strictly forbidden.
- Fishing is his hobby.