Knowing What Nouns Can Do.
Noun | Definition — A noun may be defined simply as a naming word that names something. The something that a noun names may be:
1. Animate or inanimate thing with physical existences — Examples include: person, animal, plant, tree, cow, stone, village, winner, etc.
2. Abstract or spiritual entity —Examples include: love, goodwill, passion, honesty, justice, faith, etc.
3. Some quality or property associated to an object— Examples include: density, color, weight, thickness, etc.
4. Action — which may include: cooking, singing, dancing, clapping, jumping, etc. In the case of nouns identifying actions, perhaps it is helpful to point something here! In the sentence,
- Studying is necessary to pass the exam.Studying is a noun (a specific sort of noun known as gerundOpens in new window ) because it is the name of an action and is the subject of the verb is; but notice also in:
- He was studying all day.Here, studying is not a noun: in this usage, it is a part of the verb was studying, which tells what he was doing.
Using Nouns to identify people, places or things.
- Nouns tell us the names of some persons; such as Paul, Esther, etc.
- Nouns tell us the names of some places; such as Dubai, Disneyland, Canada etc.
- Nouns tell us the names of some things that we can see, feel, touch, hear or smell; such as cucumber, smoke, dog, electricity, smoke, aeroplane etc.
Classification of Nouns
A. Classes of Nouns — Nouns are broadly classed into two classes: Common Nouns and Proper Nouns.
Common NounOpens in new window — A Common Noun is the naming word that names all the members of a class of objects—that is, the name is common to all the members of the class: as, country, state, man, bank, lake.
Proper NounOpens in new window — A Proper Noun is the naming word that distinctively names an individual member of a class: as, Virginia (a member of the class of state), Germany (country), William (male), Erie (lake). The word “proper” is derived from the word “property” and has the meaning of “one’s own.” In writing, proper nouns are capitalized.
B. Special Classes — The two classes—common and proper—cover all nouns, but included in these two are some special types, as the following:
Abstract NounOpens in new window — A naming word that names a cognitive or abstract entity: as, benevolence, courtesy, trust, tranquility, compassion, empathy, strength, resilience, etc.
Collective NounOpens in new window — A naming word that names a collection or group of similar objects: as, management, club, team, herd, mob, army, etc.
Concrete Noun Opens in new window— Concrete nouns refer to things that have some kind of actual physical form including people and animals, concrete objects that we can perceive through our senses —that is, concrete nouns can be touched, felt, held, seen, smelt, taste, or be heard. Depending on the context, concrete nouns may be variously categorized as countable (birds, plants, houses, etc.) or uncountable (snow, water, flood, etc.). Concrete noun is the opposite of abstract noun.
Compound NounOpens in new window — A combination of two or more existing nouns or other parts of speech: as, grandmother, highway, businessman, commander–in–chief, brother–in–law, sales department, payroll, Marriott Hotel, Apple Computer, etc.
Countable NounOpens in new window — A naming word that names something that can be counted and may be either physical or abstract: as, pencil (pencils); mouse (mice); idea (ideas); datum (data); school (schools) etc.
Uncountable NounOpens in new window — This is also called Mass Noun. It’s the naming word that names something that cannot be counted and is used only in the singular; it may or may not abstract: as, clutter, wisdom, silence, satisfaction, music, etc.
Principal Functions of Nouns
The principal functions of a noun in a sentence includes:
Examples, in accordance to these headings include:
Noun as Subject of a Verb.
- Mr. Briggs speaks rapidly.
- Mr. Briggs is a noun functioning as Subject.
- Noun's job is the do-er of the action “speaks”
Noun as Subject Complement.
- Peterson is my uncle.
- uncle is a noun functioning as Subject Complement.
- The Noun's job is complement of the subject “Peterson”
Noun as Predicate Noun (Predicate Nominative)
- Mr. Briggs became president
- president is a noun functioning as Predicate Nominative.
- Noun's job is renaming the subject “Mr. Briggs”
Noun as Direct Object.
- Andy bought a gift.
- gift is a noun functioning as Direct Object.
- The Noun's job is receiver of the verb's action “bought”.
Noun as Object Complement
- They made Alli captain
- Alli is a noun functioning as Direct Object.
- captain is a noun functioning as Object Complement.
- The Object complement's job is complementing the direct object Alli
Noun as Nominative Absolute.
- The truck finally loaded, they said goodbye to their neighbors and drove off.
- The phrase “The truck finally loaded” consists of a noun “the truck” and some modifiers (finally loaded).
- The phrase serves Nominative absolute modifying the rest of the sentence.
Noun as Indirect Object
- Andy bought Gretchen a gift.
- Gretchen is a noun functioning as Indirect Object.
- The Noun's job is the receiver of the direct object “gift”.
Noun as Direct Address
- James, did you get the phone?
- James is a noun functioning as Noun of Direct Address.
- The Noun's job is, it names the listener “James”.
Noun as Object of Preposition.
- Joel drove across the bridge.
- Bridge is a noun functioning as Object of Preposition.
- The Noun's job is, it follows the preposition “across”.
Noun as an Appositive
- Brenda, my neighbour, has a dog
- neighbour is a noun functioning as Appositive Noun.
- The Noun's job is, it renames the noun (subject) “Brenda”.