Satisfy your interests!
The word and is used to suggest that one idea is chronologically sequential to another.
Again, and is used to suggest that one idea is the result of another.
And is also used to suggest that one idea is in contrast to another (frequently replaced by “but” in this context).
And may also be used to suggest an element of surprise (sometimes replaced by “yet” in this context).
The word and is also used to suggest that one clause is dependent upon another conditionally (usually the first clause is an imperative).
And is sometimes used to suggest a kind of “comment” on the first clause.
But is used to suggest a contrast that is unexpected in light of the first clause.
But is used to suggest in an affirmative sense what the first part of the sentence implied in a negative way (sometimes replaced by on the contrary).
But is also used to connect two ideas with the meaning of “with the exception of” (and then the second word takes over as subject).
Or is used to suggest that only one possibility can be realized, excluding one or the other.
Or is also used to suggest the inclusive combination of alternatives.
Or may be used to suggest a refinement of the first clause.
Or is used to suggest a restatement or “correction” of the first part of the sentence.
Or is used to suggest a negative condition.
Or is also used to suggest a negative alternative without the use of an imperative (see use of and above).
Nor is not extinct, but it is not used nearly as often as the other conjunctions, so it might feel a bit odd when nor does come up in conversation or writing.
It is no longer news that neither and nor are bosom buddies. They occur in the same sentence as a correlative pair.
Nor will usually follow neither when they're used in the same sentence.
Nor can be used with other negative expressions:
Nor without a preceding negative element, but it is unusual and, to an extent, rather akward.
Yet functions sometimes as an adverbOpens in new window and has several meanings:
Yet also functions as a coordinating conjunctionOpens in new window meaning something like “nevertheless” or “but.” The word yet seems to carry an element of distinctiveness that but can seldom register.
In sentences such as the second one, above, the pronoun subject of the second clause (“they,” in this case) is often left out.
When that happens, the comma preceding the conjunction might also disappear:
Yet is sometimes combined with other conjunctions, but or and. It would not be unusual to see and yet in sentences like the ones above. This usage is acceptable.
The word for is most often used as a prepositionOpens in new window, of course, but it does serve, on rare occasions, as a coordinating conjunctionOpens in new window.
Some people regard the conjunction for as rather highfalutin and literary, and it does tend to add a bit of weightiness to the text.
Beginning a sentence with the conjunction “for” is probably not a good idea, except when you're singing:
For has serious sequential implications and in its use the order of thoughts is more important than it is, say, with because or since. Its function is to introduce the reason for the preceding clause.
Be careful of the conjunction so. Sometimes it can connect two independent clausesOpens in new window along with a comma, but sometimes it can't. For instance, in this sentence:
Where the word so means “as well” or “in addition,” most careful writers would use a semicolon between the two independent clauses.
In the following sentence, where so is acting like a minor-league “therefore,” the conjunction and the comma are adequate to the task:
Sometimes, at the beginning of a sentence, so will act as a kind of summing up device or transition, and when it does, it is often set off from the rest of the sentence with a comma:
In some parts of the United States, we are told, then and than not only look alike, they sound alike.
Like a teacher with twins in her classroom, you need to be able to distinguish between these two words; otherwise, they′ll become mischievous.
Than is used to make comparisons.
In the sentence “Piggy would rather be rescued then stay on the island,” we have employed the wrong word because a comparison is being made between Piggy's two choices; we need than instead.
In the sentence above, adverbial construction “other than” helps us make an implied comparison; this usage is perfectly acceptable in the United States but careful writers in the UK try to avoid it (Burchfield).
Generally, the only question about than arises when we have to decide whether the word is being used as a conjunction or as a prepositionOpens in new window.
If it's a preposition (and Merriam-Webster’s dictionary provides for this usage), then the word that follows it should be in the object form, as:
Most careful writers, however, will insist that than be used as a conjunction; it’s as if part of the clause introduced by than has been left out:
In formal, academic text, you should probably use than as a conjunction and follow it with the subject form of a pronounOpens in new window (where a pronoun is appropriate).
Survey the following sentence.
You can tell the difference between then as a preposition and a coordinating conjunction by trying to move the word around in the sentence. We can write:
The word then can move around within the clause. Try that with a conjunction, and you will quickly see that the conjunction cannot move around.
The word and is stuck exactly there and cannot move like then, which is more like an adverbial conjunctionOpens in new window than a coordinating conjunction.
Our original sentence in this paragraph — “Caesar invaded Gaul, then he turned his attention to England” — is a comma spliceOpens in new window, a faulty sentence construction in which a comma tries to hold together two independent clauses all by itself: the comma needs a coordinating conjunction to help out, and the word then simply doesn’t work that way.