Shadow Communication Loops
Informal Communication Networks
Alongside the formal communication networks within the organization are the informal networks.
Informal communication networks otherwise called shadow communication loops or shadow loops can be more important in a business than the formal ones.
The shadow loops are made up of friends and close colleagues within and across the formal lines who talk to each other about the company. These people know much about the personal and private lives of people at work, including their bosses. Through secretaries or maintenance personnel, they know about changes before the changes happen. The rumor mills are kept going in the informal networks called the shadow loops.
Functions of Shadow Communication Loops
The shadow communication loops function in various ways including the following:
1. Confirming formal communication
Shadow loops function to confirm formal communication. Suppose someone missed the day that an announcement was made in a group meeting. The next day, the person might talk to someone he or she knows and trusts about the formal communication. Perhaps the formal memo was ambiguous or unusual. The informal network is used to check it out.
2. Elaborating formal communication
Shadow loops may also serve to elaborate on formal communication. Often, key questions go unanswered in the official version. The “grapevine” or shadow loop goes to work and gets an answer—or makes up its own answer. When information is omitted, the minds of the people fill the vacuum. That is a problem.
3. Expediting formal communication
Shadow loops function to expedite formal communication. Formal communication does not reach everyone involved in the organization. The informal channels spread the word to those who did not hear.
Shadow loops function at times to contradict formal communication. When the formal “party line” must say one thing for political or other reasons, the informal network sets the record straight.
4. Circumventing formal communication
Shadow loops function to circumvent formal communication. This function of shadow loops is used often. It is used more in a bureaucracy. Often, the formal rules prevent workers from accomplishing the assignment. So, they circumvent formal channels and talk on the side or under the table. Everyone knows, yet no one knows, that this activity takes place. Sayings like, “It’s easier to get forgiven than permission,” or “If anyone asks, I didn’t know about it,” are common in such situations.
5. Supplementing formal communication
Finally, but certainly not the least, shadow loops function to supplement the formal communication. A formal system can never cover the bases. Therefore, an informal system buttresses the formal system. For this reason, people within an organization should be aware of both systems and learn to use them skillfully.
Intentional use of informal network is actually recommended by some business writers as the way to promote oneself in a career. These writers use the phrase office politics. They include the use of the informal network to supplement the corresponding use the formal network for personal grain.
Studies have proven that effectiveness in an organization requires skillful use of the informal as well as the formal communication network. For this to work, it must be done honestly and ethically, not in some Machiavellian fashion.
In fact, the old industrial organization makes the use of politics to promote oneself an inevitable thing. As we changed to the new systems of the information age, office politics of a different genre have come to exist. Things posted on Facebook® or YouTube® have affected careers in many different ways.
Using the Informal Communication Network, Also Known as the Shadow Loop, Entails