Porter-Lawler Model of Motivation
The Porter-Lawler Model (Porter and Lawler, 1968) extends Vroom's Expectancy TheoryOpens in new window to incorporate other aspects of motivation which were job satisfaction, perceptions of intrinsic and extrinsic rewards, abilities, traits, role perceptions and implicitly equity theory. Study the following figure.
Porter and Lawler suggested that effort (3) leads to performance (6), which then might result in rewards that in turn leads to satisfaction (9) of goals.
In addition to the Vroom model, Porter and Lawler recognize that the value of a reward (1) as well as the reward probability (2) influence the effort of an individual.
Furthermore, the Porter-Lawler Model argues that the relationship between effort and performance is influenced by the abilities and traits (4) of individuals as well as their role perceptions (5) within an organization.
The theory also recognizes that the rewards resulting from the performance might not be equal to the rewards, which individuals perceive they should have received (8). Higher levels of self-rated performance are associated with higher levels of expected rewards.
The dashed line arrows in the Figure illustrate the connection between (self-rated) performance and the perceived equitable rewards. Satisfaction is obtained only when the received rewards meet or exceed the expectations. A distinct feature of the Porter-Lawler model is the fact that it recognizes that performance can lead to extrinsic rewards, intrinsic rewards, or both.